Law:The idea of existence of a state could not be separated from the idea of the existence of the law of such state, so that such stated is governed by such law by enacting set of legislations, which shall be made according to the principles and in conformity with the regulation of the relations between the individual and the officials in the state. Therefore, when the state possesses the power and the sovereign, it will be prevailed by the so-called rules of public law, but if the court doesn’t possess its own legal links; i.e. the state is engaged in the relations within being the holder of the power and sovereign, it will be prevailed by the so-called rules of the private law. Thereupon, the public law is defined as the law that depends on the force, in contrary to the private law that depends on principles of equality and justice between parties to the legal relationship regardless the parties thereof. In the science of legislation, the public law is defined as set of disposal rules that determine the relations and rights between the people and various organizations and the relationship between the individual and the state and the failure to commit to the same results in specific punishments determined in the law.
The public and the private law:
The public law applicable in some states requires group of the basic and fixed rules that govern the relation between these states and the international and regional organizations as well as the so-called constitutional law that includes the rules, which regulate the entity and internal power of the state include in the formation thereof. As for the administrative law; it is such law that organizes the administrative relations among the persons considering them as individuals in the state and adjudicates the natural individuals and institutions of this state, if it does not possess the capacity of the sovereign and power or an ordinary person of the private law has intervened. The private law includes many; the most important ones are the maritime law, the private international law, the civil laws and the principles of legal trials and the commercial law.
The civil law is the basis that governs the private, due to the rules and general legislation that regulate the relations in the same. Thereupon, the civil law is defined as series of the legal rules listed in the relations of the private law and it is also defined as the legal rules that regulate the relations; especially, the financial relations among the individuals including other branches; such as the commercial law, maritime law, agriculture law and other laws. The topics of the civil law are different based upon the difference of the legal systems of the state; for example, In France, there is law called Napoleonic law for financial and legal financial rules, but in Jordan and Palestine it is applicable to rules of the in-kind cases and the financial legal links. The personal affairs are being organized by virtue of independent law that the provisions thereof are extracted from the Islamic jurisprudence to organize the provisions of the marriage, inheritance, divorce, affinity and other cases.